History - Date Line
6th Century (500-599) C.E.
545: Birth of Abdullah, the Holy Prophet's father.
571: Birth of the Holy Prophet. Year of the Elephant. Invasion of Makkah by
Abraha the Viceroy of Yemen, his retreat.
577: The Holy Prophet visits Madina with his mother. Death of his mother.
580: Death of Abdul Muttalib, the grandfather of the Holy Prophet.
583: The Holy Prophet's journey to Syria in the company of his uncle Abu Talib.
His meeting with the monk Bahira at Bisra who foretells of his prophethood.
586: The Holy Prophet participates in the war of Fijar.
591: The Holy Prophet becomes an active member of "Hilful Fudul", a league for
the relief of the distressed.
594: The Holy Prophet becomes the Manager of the business of Lady Khadija, and
leads her trade caravan to Syria and back.
595: The Holy Prophet marries Hadrat Khadija. Seventh century
7th Century (600-699) C.E.
605: The Holy Prophet arbitrates in a dispute among the Quraish about the
placing of the Black Stone in the Kaaba.
610: The first revelation in the cave at Mt. Hira. The Holy Prophet is
commissioned as the Messenger of God.
613: Declaration at Mt. Safa inviting the general public to Islam.
614: Invitation to the Hashimites to accept Islam.
615: Persecution of the Muslims by the Quraish. A party of Muslims leaves for
616: Second Hijrah to Abysinnia.
617: Social boycott of the Hashimites and the Holy Prophet by the Quraish. The
Hashimites are shut up in a glen outside Makkah.
619: Lifting of the boycott. Deaths of Abu Talib and Hadrat Khadija. Year of
620: Journey to Taif. Ascension to the heavens.
621: First pledge at Aqaba.
622: Second pledge at Aqaba. The Holy Prophet and the Muslims migrate to
623: Nakhla expedition.
624: Battle of Badr. Expulsion of the Bani Qainuqa Jews from Madina.
625: Battle of Uhud. Massacre of 70 Muslims at Bir Mauna. Expulsion of Banu
Nadir Jews from Madina. Second expedition of Badr.
626: Expedition of Banu Mustaliq.
627: Battle of the Trench. Expulsion of Banu Quraiza Jews.
628: Truce of Hudaibiya. Expedition to Khyber. The Holy Prophet addresses
letters to various heads of states.
629: The Holy Prophet performs the pilgrimage at Makkah. Expedition to Muta
630: Conquest of Makkah. Battles of Hunsin, Auras, and Taif.
631: Expedition to Tabuk. Year of Deputations.
632: Farewell pilgrimage at Makkah.
632: Death of the Holy Prophet. Election of Hadrat Abu Bakr as the Caliph.
Usamah leads expedition to Syria. Battles of Zu Qissa and Abraq. Battles of
Buzakha, Zafar and Naqra. Campaigns against Bani Tamim and Musailima, the Liar.
633: Campaigns in Bahrain, Oman, Mahrah Yemen, and Hadramaut. Raids in Iraq.
Battles of Kazima, Mazar, Walaja, Ulleis, Hirah, Anbar, Ein at tamr, Daumatul
Jandal and Firaz.
634: Battles of Basra, Damascus and Ajnadin. Death of Hadrat Abu Bakr. Hadrat
Umar Farooq becomes the Caliph. Battles of Namaraq and Saqatia.
635: Battle of Bridge. Battle of Buwaib. Conquest of Damascus. Battle of Fahl.
636: Battle of Yermuk. Battle of Qadsiyia. Conquest of Madain.
637: Conquest of Syria. Fall of Jerusalem. Battle of Jalula.
638: Conquest of Jazirah.
639: Conquest of Khuizistan. Advance into Egypt.
640: Capture of the post of Caesaria in Syria. Conquest of Shustar and Jande
Sabur in Persia. Battle of Babylon in Egypt.
641: Battle of Nihawand. Conquest Of Alexandria in Egypt.
642: Battle of Rayy in Persia. Conquest of Egypt. Foundation of Fustat.
643: Conquest of Azarbaijan and Tabaristan (Russia).
644: Conquest of Fars, Kerman, Sistan, Mekran and Kharan.Martyrdom of Hadrat
Umar. Hadrat Othman becomes the Caliph.
645: Campaigns in Fats.
646: Campaigns in Khurasan, Armeain and Asia Minor.
647: Campaigns in North Africa. Conquest of the island of Cypress.
648: Campaigns against the Byzantines.
651: Naval battle of the Masts against the Byzantines.
652: Discontentment and disaffection against the rule of Hadrat Othman.
656: Martyrdom of Hadrat Othman. Hadrat Ali becomes the Caliph. Battle of the
657: Hadrat Ali shifts the capital from Madina to Kufa. Battle of Siffin.
Arbitration proceedings at Daumaut ul Jandal.
658: Battle of Nahrawan.
659: Conquest of Egypt by Mu'awiyah.
660: Hadrat Ali recaptures Hijaz and Yemen from Mu'awiyah. Mu'awiyah declares
himself as the Caliph at Damascus.
661: Martyrdom of Hadrat Ali. Accession of Hadrat Hasan and his abdication.
Mu'awiyah becomes the sole Caliph.
662: Khawarij revolts.
666: Raid of Sicily.
670: Advance in North Africa. Uqba b Nafe founds the town of Qairowan in
Tunisia. Conquest of Kabul.
672: Capture of the island of Rhodes. Campaigns in Khurasan.
674: The Muslims cross the Oxus. Bukhara becomes a vassal state.
677: Occupation of Sarnarkand and Tirmiz. Siege of Constantinople.
680: Death of Muawiyah. Accession of Yazid. Tragedy of Kerbala and martyrdom of
682: In North Africa Uqba b Nafe marches to the Atlantic, is ambushed and killed
at Biskra. The Muslims evacuate Qairowan and withdraw to Burqa.
683: Death of Yazid. Accession of Mu'awiyah II.
684: Abdullah b Zubair declares himself as the Caliph at Makkah. Marwan I
becomes the Caliph' at Damascus. Battle of Marj Rahat.
685: Death of Marwan I. Abdul Malik becomes the Caliph at Damascus. Battle of
Ain ul Wada.
686: Mukhtar declares himself as the Caliph at Kufa.
687: Battle of Kufa between the forces of Mukhtar and Abdullah b Zubair. Mukhtar
691: Battle of Deir ul Jaliq. Kufa falls to Abdul Malik. Hajjaj bin Yusuf
692: The fall of Makkah. Death of Abdullah b Zubair. Abdul Malik becomes the
695: Khawarij revolts in Jazira and Ahwaz. Battle of the Karun. Campaigns
against Kahina in North Africa. The' Muslims once again withdraw to Barqa. The
Muslims advance in Transoxiana and occupy Kish.
8th Century (700-799) C.E.
700: Campaigns against the Berbers in North Africa.
702: Ashath's rebellion in Iraq, battle of Deir ul Jamira.
705: Death of Abdul Malik. Accession of Walid I as Caliph.
711: Conquest of Spain, Sind and Transoxiana.
712: The Muslims advance in Spain, Sind and Transoxiana. Muhammad ibn-Qas?m, was
sent to Sindh.
713: Conquest of Multan.
715: Death of Walid I. Accession of Sulaiman.
716: Invasion of Constantinople.
717: Death of Sulaiman. Accession of Umar b Abdul Aziz.
720: Death of Umar b Abdul Aziz. Accession of Yazid II.
724: Death of Yazid II. Accession of Hisham.
725: The Muslims occupy Nimes in France.
732: The battle of Tours in France.
737: The Muslims meet reverse at Avignon in France.
740: Shia revolt under Zaid b Ali. Berber revolt in North Africa. Battle of the
741: Battle of Bagdoura in North Africa.
742: The Muslim rule restored in Qiarowan.
743: Death of Hisham. Accession of Walid II. Shia revolt in Khurasan under Yahya
744: Deposition of Walid I1. Accession of Yazid II1 and his death. Accession of
Ibrahim and his overthrow. Battle of Ain al Jurr. Accession of Marwan II.
745: Kufa and Mosul occupied by the Khawarjites.
746: Battle of Rupar Thutha, Kufa and Mosul occupied by Marwan II.
747: Revolt of Abu Muslim in Khurasan.
748: Battle of Rayy.
749: Battles of lsfahan and Nihawand. Capture of Kufa by the Abbasids. As Saffah
becomes the Abbasid Caliph at Kufa.
750: Battle of Zab. Fall of Damascus. End of the Umayyads.
751: Conquest of Wasit by the Abbasid. Murder of the Minister Abu Salama.
754: Death of As Saffah. Accession of Mansur as the Caliph.
755: Revolt of Abdullah b Ali. MUrder of Abu Muslim. Sunbadh revolt in Khurasan.
756: Abdul Rahman founds the Umayyad state in Spain.
762: Shia revolt under Muhammad (Nafs uz Zakia) and Ibrahim.
763: Foundation of Baghdad. Defeat of the Abbasids in Spain.
767: Khariji state set up by Ibn Madrar at Sijilmasa. Ustad Sees revolt in
772: Battle of Janbi in North Africa. Rustamid. state set up in Morocco.
775: Death or the Abbasid Caliph Mansur, Accession of Mahdi.
777: Battle of Saragossa in Spain.
785: Death of the Caliph Mahdi. Accession of Hadi.
786: Death of Hadi. Accession of Harun ur Rashid.
788: Idrisid state set up in the Maghrib. Death of Abdul Rahman of Spain, and
accession of Hisham.
792: Invasion of South France.
796: Death of Hisham in Spain; accession of al Hakam.
799: Suppression of the revolt of the Khazars.
9th Century (800-899) C.E.
800: The Aghlabid rule is established in North Africa.
803: Downfall of the Barmakids. Execution of Jafar Barmki.
805: Campaigns against the Byzantines. Capture of the islands of Rhodes and
809: Death of Harun ur Rashid. Accession of Amin.
814: Civil war between Amin and Mamun. Amin killed and Mamun becomes the Caliph.
815: Shia revolt under Ibn Tuba Tabs.
816: Shia revolt in Makkah; Harsama quells the revolt. In Spain the Umayyads
capture the island of Corsica.
817: Harsama killed.
818: The Umayyads of Spain capture the islands of Izira, Majorica, and Sardinia.
819: Mamun comes to Baghdad.
820: Tahir establishes the rule of the Tahirids in Khurasan.
822: Death of Al Hakam in Spain; accession of Abdul Rahman. II.
823: Death of Tahir in Khurasan. Accession of Talha and his deposition.
Accession of Abdullah b Tahir.
827: Mamun declares the Mutazila creed as the state religion.
833: Death of Mamun. Accession of Mutasim.
836: Mutasim shifts the capital to Samarra.
837: Revolt of the Jats.
838: Revolt of Babek in Azarbaijan suppressed.
839: Revolt of Maziar in Tabaristan. The Muslims occupy South Italy. Capture of
the city of Messina in Sicily.
842: Death of Mutasim, accession of Wasiq.
843: Revolts of the Arabs.
847: Death of Wasiq, accession of Mutawakkil.
850: Mutawakkil restores orthodoxy.
849: Death of the Tahirid ruler Abdullah b Tahir; accession of Tahir II.
852: Death of Abdur Rahman II of Spain;. accession of Muhammad I.
856: Umar b Abdul Aziz founds the Habbarid rule in Sind.
858: Mutawakkil founds the town of Jafariya.
860: Ahmad founds the Samanid rule in Transoxiana.
861: Murder of the Abbasid Caliph Mutawakkil; accession of Muntasir.
862: Muntasir poisoned to death; accession of Mutasin.
864: Zaidi state established in Tabaristan by Hasan b Zaid.
866: Mutasim flies from Samarra, his depostion and accession of Mutaaz.
867: Yaqub b Layth founds the Saffarid rule in Sistan.
868: Ahmad b Tulun founds the Tulunid rule in Egypt.
869: The Abbasid Caliph Mutaaz forced to abdicate, his death and accession of
870: Turks revolt against Muhtadi, his death and accession of Mutamid.
873: Tahirid rule extinguished.
874: Zanj revolt in South Iraq. Death of the Samanid ruler Ahmad, accession of
877: Death of Yaqubb Layth in Sistan, accession of Amr b Layth.
885: Death of Ahmad b Tulun in Egypt, accession of Khamar- wiyiah.
866: Death of Muhammad I the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Munzir. Death
of Abdullah b Umar the Habbari ruler of Sind.
888: Death of Munzir the Umayyad ruler of Spain, accession of Abbullah.
891: The Qarmatian state established at Bahrain.
892: Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr, accession of Ismail.
894: The Rustamids become the vassals of Spain.
896: Death of the Tulunid ruler Khamarwiyiah; accession of Abul Asakir Jaish.
897: Assassination of Abul Asakir Jaish; accession of Abu Musa Harun.
898: Qarmatians sack Basra.
10th Century (900-999) C.E.
902: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; death of the Saffarid ruler Amr.
903: Assassination of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Said; accession of Abu Tahir.
905: Abdullah b Hamdan founds the Hamdanid rule in Mosul and Jazira. End of the
Tulunid rule in Egypt.
907: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muktafi; accession of Muqtadir.
908: End of the Saffarid rule, annexation of their territories by the Samanids.
909: Ubaidullah overthrows the Aghlablds and founds the Fatimid rule in North
912: Death of the Umayyad Amir Abdullah in Spain, accession of Abdur Rahman III.
913: Assassination of the Samanid ruler Ahmad II, accession of Nasr II.
928: Mardawij b Ziyar founds the Ziyarid rule in Tabaristan.
929: Qarmatians sack Makkah and carry away the Black Stone from the Holy Kaaba.
In Spain, Abdur Rahman III declares himself as the Caliph.
931: Deposition and restoration of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir. Death of the
Qarmatian ruler Abu Tahir; accession of Abu Mansur.
932: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Muqtadir; accession of Al Qahir.
934: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qahir; accession of Ar Radi. Death of
the Fatimid Caliph Ubaidullah ; accession of Al Qaim.
935: Assassination of the Ziyarid ruler Mardawij; accession of Washimgir. Death
of Hamdanid ruler Abdullah b Hamdan accession of Nasir ud Daula.
936: By coup Ibn Raiq becomes the Amir ul Umara.
938: By another coup power at Baghdad is captured by Bajkam.
940: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Ar Radi, accession of Muttaqi.
941: Assassination of Bajkam, capture of power by Kurtakin.
942: Ibn Raiq recaptures power.
943: Al Baeidi captures power. The Abbasid Caliph Muttaqi is forced to seek
refuge with the Hamdanids. Sail ud Daula captures power at Baghdad and the
Caliph returns to' Baghdad. Power is captured by Tuzun and Sail ud Daula
retires' to Mosul. Death of the Samanid ruler Nasr II, accession of Nuh.
944: Muttaqi is blinded and deposed, accession of Mustakafi.
945: Death of Tuzun. Shirzad becomes Amir ul Umra. The Buwayhids capture power.
Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Mustakafi.
946: Death of the Fatimid Caliph A1 Qaim. accession of Mansur. Death of the
Ikhshid ruler Muhammad b Tughj, accession of Abul' Qasim Ungur.
951: The Qarnaatiana restore the Black Stone to the Holy Kaaba.
954: Death of the Sasanid ruler Nuh, accession of Abdul Malik.
961: Death of the Samanid ruler Abdul Malik, accession of Manauf. Alptgin founds
the rule of the Ghazanavids. Death of the Umayyad Caliph Abdul Rahman III in
Spain; accession of Hakam. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Ungur accession of Abul
965: Death of the Qarmatian ruler Abu Mansur; accession of Hasan Azam.
Assassination of the Ikhshid ruler Abul Hasan Ali; power captured by Malik
967: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Muiz ud Daula, accession of Bakhtiar. Death of
the Hamdanid ruler Sail ud Daula.
968: Byzantines occupy Aleppo. Death of the Ikhshid ruler Malik Kafur; accession
of Abul Fawaris.
969: The Fatimids conquer Egypt.
972: Buluggin b Ziri founds the rule of the Zirids Algeria.
973: Shia Sunni disturbances in Baghdad; power captured in Baghdad by the
Turkish General Subuktgin.
974: Abdication of the Abbasid Caliph Al Muttih; accession of At Taii.
975: Death of the Turk General Subuktgin. Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Muizz.
976: The Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula recaptures power with the help of his
cousin Azud ud Daula. Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur, accession of Nuh II. In
Spain death of the Umayyad Caliph Hakam, accession of Hisham II.
978: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Izz ud Daula, power captured by Azud ud Daula.
The Hamdanids overthrown by the Buwayhids.
979: Subkutgin becomes the Amir of Ghazni.
981: End of the Qarmatian rule at Bahrain.
982: Death of the- Buwayhid Sultan Azud ud Daula; accession of Samsara ud Daula.
984: Death of the Zirid ruler Buluggin, accession of Mansur.
986: The Buwyhid Sultan Samsara ud Daula overthrown by Sharaf ud Daula.
989: Death of the Buwayhid Sultan Sharaf ud Daula, accession of Baha ud Daula.
991: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph At Taii, accession of Al Qadir.
996: Death of the Zirid ruler Mansur, accession of Nasir ud Daula Badis.
997: Death of the Samanid ruler Nuh II, accession of Mansur II.
998: Death of the Samanid ruler Mansur II, accession of Abdul Malik II. Mahmud
becomes the Amir of Ghazni.
999: End of the Samanids.
11th Century (1000-1099) C.E.
1001: Mahmud Ghazanavi defeats the Hindu Shahis.
1004: Mahmud captures Bhatiya.
1005: Mahmud captures Multan and Ghur.
1008: Mahmud defeats the Rajput confederacy.
1010: Abdication of Hisham II in Spain. accession of Muhammad.
1011: In Spain Muhammad is overthrown by Sulaiman.
1012: In Spain power is captured by Bani Hamud. Death of the Buwayhid Baha ud
Daula, accession of Sultan ud Daula.
1016: Death of the Zirrid ruler Nasir ud Daula Badis; accession of Al Muizz.
1018: In Spain power is captured by Abdul Rahman IV.
1019: Conquest of the Punjab by Mahmud Ghazanavi.
1020: The Buwayhid Sultan ud Daula is Overthrown by Musharaf ud Daula, Death of
the Fatimid Caliph Al Hakim, accession of Al Zahir.
1024: In Spain assassination of Abdul Rahman IV, accession of Mustafi.
1025: Death of the Buwayhid Mushgraf ud Daula, accession of Jalal ud Daula.
1029: In Spain death of Mustaft, accession of Hisham III.
1030: Death of Mahmud Ghazanavi.
1031: In Spain deposition of Hisharn III, and end of the Umayyad rule. Death of
the Abbasid Caliph Al Qadir, accession of Al Qaim.
1036: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Zahir, accession of Mustansir. Tughril Beg
is crowned as the king of the Seljuks.
1040: Battle of Dandanqan, the Seljuks defeat the Ghazanavids. Deposition of
Masud the Ghazanavid Sultan, accession of Muhammad. Al Moravids come to power in
1041: The Ghazanavid Sultan Muhammad is overthrown by Maudud.
1044: Death of the Buwayhid Jalal ud Daula, accession of Abu Kalijar.
1046: Basasiri captures power in Baghdad.
1047: The Zirids in North Africa repudiate allegiance to the Fatimid and
transfer allegiance to-the Abbasids.
1048: Death of the Buwayhid Abu Kalijar, accession of Malik ur Rahim.
1050: Yusuf b Tashfin comes to power .in the Maghrib.
1055: Tughril Beg overthrows the Buwayhids.
1057: Basasiri recaptures power in Baghdad, deposes Al Qaim and offers
allegiance to the Fatimid Caliph.
1059: Tughril Beg recaptures power in Baghdad, al Qaim is restored as the
1060: Ibrahim becomes the Sultan of Ghazni. Yusuf b Tashfin founds the city of
Marrakesh. The Zirids abandon their capital Ashir and establish their capital at
1062: Death of the Zirid ruler Al Muizz, accession of Tamin.
1063: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg; accession of Alp Arsalan.
1071: Battle of Manzikert, the Byzantine emperor taken captive by the Seljuks.
1073: Death of Alp Arsalan, accession of Malik Shah.
1077: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Qaim, accession of Al Muqtadi.
1082: The A1 Moravids conquer Algeria.
1086: Battle of Zallakha. The Al Moravids defeat the Christians in Spain. Death
of the Rum Sejuk Sultan Sulaiman, accession of Kilij Arsalan.
1091: The Normans conquer the island of Sicily; end of the Muslim rule.
1092: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah, accession of Mahmud.
1094: Death of Mahmud; accession of Barkiaruk. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al
Muqtadi, accession of Mustahzir.
1095: The first crusade.
1099: The crusaders capture Jerusalem.
12th Century (1100-1199) C.E.
1101: Death or the Fatimid Caliph Al Mustaali, accession of Al Aamir.
1105: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Barkiaruk, accession Of Muhammad.
1106: Death of the Al Motavid Yusuf b Tashfin.
1107: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Kilij Arsalan, succession of Malik Shah.
1108: Death of the Zirid ruler Tamin, accession of Yahya.
1116: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah. accession of Rukn ud Din Masud.
1118: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad; accession of Mahmud II. Death of the
Abbasid Caliph Mustahzir, accession of Mustarshid. In Spain the Christians
1121: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Aamir, accession of Al Hafiz.
1127: Imad ud Din Zangi establishes the Zangi rule In Mosul.
1128: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Qutb ud Din Muhammad; accession of Atsiz.
1130: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Mahmud II; accession of Tughril Beg II.
1134: Assassination of the Abbasid Caliph Mustarshid; accession of Al Rashid.
Death of the Seljuk Sultan Tughril Beg II, accession of Masud.
1135: Deposition of the Abbasid Caliph Al Rashid, accession of Al Muktafi.
1144: Imad ud Din Zangi captures Edessa from the Christians, second crusade.
1146: Death of Imad ud Din Zangi, accession of Nur ud Din Zangi.
1147: In the Maghrib Al Moravids overthrown by the Al Mohads under Abul Mumin.
1148: End of the Zirid rule' in North Africa.
1149: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Hafiz, accession of Al Zafar.
1152: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Masud, accession of Malik Shah II. Hamadid rule
extinguished in North Africa.
1153: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Malik Shah I1, accession of Muhammad II.
1154: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Zafar, accession of Al Faiz.
1156: Death of the Rum Seljuk Sultan Rukn ud Din Masid, accession of Arsalan II.
1159: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Muhammad II, accession of Gulaiman.
1160: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Mukta, accession of Al Mustanjid. Death of
the Fatimid Caliph Al Faiz, accession of Al Azzid.
1161: Death of the Seljuk Sulaiman, accession of Arsalan Shah.
1163: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abul Mumin, accession of Abu Yaqub Yusuf.
1170: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustanjid, accession of Al Mustazii.
1171: Death of the Fatimid Caliph Al Azzid. End of the Fatimids. Salah ud Din
founds the Ayyubid dynasty in Egypt.
1172: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Arsalan, accession of Sultan Shah.
1173: The Khawarzam Shah Sultan Shah is overthrown by Tukush Shah.
1174: Salah ud Din annexes Syria.
1175: The Ghurids defeat the Guzz Turks and occupy Ghazni.
1176: Death of the Seljuk Sultan Arsalan Shah, accession of Tughril Beg III.
1179: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Mustazaii, accession of Al Nasir. Shahab ud
Din Ghuri captures Peshawar.
1185: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abu Yaqub Yusuf, accession of Abu Yusuf Yaqub.
1186: The Ghurids overthrow the Ghaznvaids in the Punjab.
1187: Salah ud Din wrests Jerusalem from the Christians, third crusade.
1191: Battle of Tarain between the Rajputs and the Ghurids.
1192 Muhammad Ghori captures Delhi.
1193: Death of Salah ud Din; accession of Al Aziz. Second battleof Tarain.
1194: Occupation of Delhi by the Muslims. End of the Seljuk rule.
1199: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Tukush Shah; accession of Ala ud Din. Death of
the Al Mohad ruler Abu Yusuf Yaqub; accession of Muhammad Nasir. Conquest of
Northern India and Bengal by the Ghurids.
13th Century (1200-1299) C.E.
1202: Death of the Ghurid Sultan Ghias ud Din; accession of Mahmud.
1204: Shahab ud Din Ghuri defeated by the Ghuzz Turks.
1206: Death of Shahab ud Din Ghuri. Qutb ud Din Aibik crowned king in Lahore.
1210: Assassination of the Ghurid Sultan MahmUd, accession of Sam. Death of Qutb
ud Din Aibak, accession of Aram Shah in India.
1211: End of the Ghurid rule, their territories annexed by the Khawarzam Shahs.
In India Aram Shah overthrown by Iltutmish.
1212: Battle of Al Uqab in Spain, end of the Al Mohad rule in Spain. The Al
Mohads suffer defeat by the Christians in Spain at the Al-Uqba. The Al Mohad
Sultan An Nasir escapes to Morocco where he dies soon after. Accession of his
son Yusuf who takes over title of Al Mustansir.
1214: In North Africa death of the Al Mohad ruler Al Nasir, accession of Al
Mustansir. The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq occupy the north eastern
part of Morocco.
1216: The Banu Marin under their leader Abdul Haq occupy north eastern part of
Morocco. The Al Mohads suffer defeat by the Marinids at the battle of Nakur. The
Banu Marin defeat the Al Mobads at the battle of Nakur.
1217: The Marinids suffer defeat in the battle fought on the banks of the Sibu
river. Abdul Haq is killed and the Marinids evacuate Morocco. In the battle of
Sibu the Marinids suffer defeat; their leader Abdul Haq is killed and they
1218: Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al Adil, accession of Al Kamil. The Marinids
return to Morocco under their leader Othman and occupy Fez.
1220: Death of the Khawarzam Shah Ala ud Din, accession of Jalal ud Din
1222: Death of the Zangi ruler Nasir ud Din Mahmud, power captured by Badr ud
1223: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Muntasir, accession of Abdul Wahid. Death of
Yusuf Al Mustansir, accession of Abdul Wahid in Morocco.. In Spain a brother of
Yusuf declares his independence and assumes the title of Al Adil. In Spain Abu
Muhammad overthrows Al Adil. Al Adil escapes to Morocco and overthrows Abdul
1224: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abdul Wahid, accession of Abdullah Adil.
1225: Death of the Abbasid Caliph Al Nasir, accession of Al Mustansir.
1227: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abdullah Adil, accession of Mustasim.
Assassination of Al Adil, accession of his son Yahya who assumes the throne
under the name of Al Mustasim.
1229: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Mustasim, accession of Idris. The Ayyubid Al
Kamil restores Jerusalem to the Christians. Abu Muhammad dies in Spain and is
succeeded by Al Mamun. Al Mamun invades Morocco with Christian help. Yahya is
defeated and power is captured by Al Mamun. He denies the Mahdiship of Ibn
1230: End of the Khawarzam Shah rule.
1232: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Idris, accession, of Abdul Wahid II.
Assassination of Al Mamun; accession of his son Ar-Rashid.
1234: Death of the Ayyubid ruler Al Kamil, accession of Al Adil.
1236: Death of Delhi Sultan Iltutmish. Accession of Rukn ud Din Feroz Shah.
1237: Accession of Razia Sultana as Delhi Sultan.
1240: Death of Ar-Rashid; accession of his son Abu Said.
1241: Death of Razia Sultana, accession of Bahram Shah.
1242: Death of Bahram Shah, accession of Ala ud Din Masud Shah as Delhi Sultan.
Death of the Al Mohad rules Abdul Wahid, accession of Abu Hasan. Death of the
Abbasid Caliph Mustansir, accession of Mustasim.
1243: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abdul Walid II, accession of
1244: The Al Mohads defeat the Marinids at the battle of Abu Bayash. The
Marinids evacuate Morocco.
1245: The Muslims reconquer Jerusalem.
1246: Death of the Delhi Sultan Ala ud Din Masud Shah, accession of Nasir ud Din
1248: Death of the Al Mohad ruler Abul Hasan, accession of Omar Murtaza. Abu
Said attacks Tlemsen, but is ambushed and killed; accession of his son Murtada.
1250: The Marinids return to Morocco, and occupy a greatar part thereof.
1258: The Mongols sack Baghdad. Death of the Abbasid Caliph Mustasim. End of the
Abbasid rule. Fall of Baghdad, end of the Abbasid caliphate. The Mongol II-Khans
under Halaku establish their rule in Iran and Iraq with the capital at Maragah.
Berek Khan the Muslim chief of the Golden Horde protests against the treatment
meted out to the Abbasid Caliph and withdraw his Contingent from Baghdad.
1259: Abu Abdullah the Hafsid ruler declares himself as the Caliph and assumes
the name of Al Mustamir.
1260: Battle of Ayn Jalut in Syria. The Mongols are defeated by the Mamluks of
Egypt, and the spell of the invincibility of the Mongols is broken. Baybars
becomes the Mamluk Sultan.
1262: Death of Bahauddin Zikriya in Multan who is credited with the introduction
of the Suhrawardi Sufi order in the IndoPakistan sub-continent.
1265: Death of Halaku. Death of Fariduddin Ganj Shakkar the Chishti saint of the
1266: Death of Berek Khan the first ruler of the Golden Horde to be converted to
Islam. The eighth crusade. The crusaders invade Tunisia. Failure of the crusade.
1267: Malik ul Salih establishes the first Muslim state of Samudra Pasai in
Indonesia. Murtada seeks the help of the Christians, and the Spaniards invade
Morocco. The Marinids drive away the Spaniards from Morocco. Assassination of
Murtada; accession of Abu Dabbas.
1269: Abu Dabbas is overthrown by the Marinida, End of the Al Mohads. End of the
rule of the Al Mohads in Morocco, the Marinids come to power in Morocco under
1270: Death of Mansa Wali the founder of the Muslim rule in M ali.
1272: Death of Muhammad I the founder of the state of Granada. Yaghmurason
invades Morocco but meets a reverse at the battle
1273: Death of Jalaluddin Rumi.
1274: Death of Nasiruddin Tusi. The Marinids wrest Sijilmasa from the Zayenids.
Ninth crusade under Edward I of England. The crusade ends in fiasco and Edward
returns to England.
1277: Death of Baybars.
1280: Battle of Hims.
1283: Death of Yaghmurasan. Accession of his son Othman.
1285: Tunisis splits in Tunis and Bougie.
1286: Death of Ghiasuddin Balban. Death of Abu Yusuf Yaqub. Bughra Khan declares
his independence in Bengal under the name of Nasiruddin.
1290: End of the slave dynasty Jalaluddin Khilji comes into power. Othman
embarks on a career of conquest and by 1290 C.E. most of the Central Maghreb is
conquered by the Zayanids.
1296: Alauddin Ghazan converted to Islam.
1299: Mongols invade Syria. The Marinids besiege Tlemsen the capital of the
14th Century (1300-1399) C.E.
1301: In Bengal, Death of Ruknuddin the king of Bengal, succeeded by brother
1302: In Granada, Death of Muhammad II; succession of Muhammad III.
1304: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Ghazan, succession of his brother
Khudabanda Ul Jaytu. In Algeria, Death of Othman, succession of his son Abu
1305: In the Khiljis empire, Alauddin Khilji conquers Rajputana.
1306: In the Chughills empire, Death of Dava, succession of his son Kunjuk.
1307: In the Marinids empire, Assassination of the Marinid Sultan Abu Yaqub
Yusuf; accession of Abu Thabit
1308: In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Kunjuk, power captured by Taliku.
In Algeria, Death of Abu Zayan Muhammad, succession of his brother Abu Hamuw
Musa. In the Marinids empire, Abu Thabit overthrown by Abu Rabeah Sulaiman.
1309: In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Taliku, accession of Kubak. In
Granada, Muhammad III overthrown by his uncle Abul Juyush Nasr.
1310: In the Chughills empire, Kubak overthrown by his brother Isan Buga. In the
Marinids empire, Abu Rabeah Sulaiman overthrown by Abu Said Othman. In the
Khiljis empire, Alauddin conquers Deccan.
1312: In Tunisia, In Tunis Abul Baqa is overthrown by Al Lihiani.
1313: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Invasion of Syria, the Mongols repulsed.
In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Toktu, accession of his nephew Uzbeg.
1314: In Kashmir, Rainchan an adventurer from Baltistan overthrows Sinha Deva
the Raja of Kashmir. Rainchan is converted to Islam and adopts the name of
Sadrud Din. In Granada, Abul Juyush overthrown by his nephew Abul Wahid Ismail.
1315: In Tunisia, War between Bougie and Tunis, Lihani defeated and killed. Abu
Bakr becomes the ruler of Bougie and Tunis.
1316: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Khudabanda Ul Jaytu, succession
of Abu Said. In the Khiljis empire, Death of Alauddin, accession of Shahabuddin
Umar, usurpation of power by Malik Kafur, a Hindu convert.
1318: In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Malik Kafur, deposition of
Shahabuddin Umar, accession of Qutbuddin Mubarak. In the Chughills empire, Isan
Buga overthrown by Kubak.
1320: In the Khiljis empire, Assassination of Qutbuddin Mubarak, usurpation of
power by Khusro Khan a Hindu convert. Khusro Khan overthrown by Ghazi Malik. End
of the rule of Khiljis. In Tunisia, Abu Bakr expelled from Tunis by Abu Imran.
In the Tughluqs empire, Ghazi Malik founds the rule of the Tughluq dynasty.
1321: In the Chughills empire, Death of Kubak, succession of Hebbishsi who is
overthrown by Dava Temur.
1322: In the Chughills empire, Dava Temur overthrown by Tarmashirin, who is
converted to Islam. In Bengal, Death of Shamsuddin Firuz. The kingdom divided
into two parts. Ghiasuddin Bahadur became the ruler of East Bengal with the
capital at Sonargaon, Shahabuddin became the ruler of West Bengal with the
capital at Lakhnauti.
1324: In Bengal, Shahabuddin dies and is succeeded by his brother Nasiruddin.
1325: In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghazi Malik (Ghiasuddin Tughluq);
accession of his son Muhammad Tughluq. In Granada, Assassination of Abul Wahid
Ismail, succession of his son Muhammad IV. Assassination of Muhammad IV.
Accession of his brother Abul Hallaj Yusuf. In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death
of Malik al Tahir I, accession of Malik al Tahir II. In Bengal, With the help of
Ghiasuddin Tughluq, Nasiruddin over-throws. Ghiasuddin Bahadur and himself
become's the ruler of United Bengal.
1326: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Othman, succession of Orkhan. Orkhan
conquers Bursa and makes it his capital.
1327: In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture the city of Nicaea.
1329: In the Tughluqs empire, Muhammad Tughluq shifts the capital from Delhi to
Daulatabad in Deccan.
1330: In the Chughills empire, Death of Tramashirin, succession of Changshahi.
Amir Hussain establishes the rule of the Jalayar dynasty at Baghdad. In Tunisia,
Abu Bakr overthrows Abu Imran and the state is again united, under him. In
Bengal, Muhammad b Tughluq reverses the policy of his father and restores
Ghiasuddin Bahadur to the throne of Sonargeon.
1331: In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Said Othman, sucession of Abul Hasan.
In Bengal, Annexation of Bengal by the Tughluqs.
1335: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Death of Abu Said, power captured by Arpa
Koun. In the Chughills empire, Assassination of Changshahi, accession of Burun.
1336: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Arpa defeated and killed, succeeded by
Musa. Birth of Amir Temur. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Amir Hussain,
succession of Hasan Buzurg. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks annex the
state of Karasi. In Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Sonargeon assassinated by
armour bearer who captured power and declared his independence assuming the name
of Fakhruddin Mubarak Shah.
1337: In the Mongols II Khans empire, The rule of Musa overthrown, Muhammad
becomes the Sultan. In the Sarbadaran empire, On the disintegration of the
II-Khan rule, Abdur Razaq a military adventurer establishes an independent
principality in Khurasan with the capital at Sabzwar. In the Muzaffarids empire,
On the disintegration of the II Khan rule Mubarazud Din Muhammad established the
rule of the Muzaffarid dynasty. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks capture
the city of Nicomedia. In Algeria, Algeria is occupied by Marinids.
1338: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Muhammad overthrown, succession of Sati
Beg. Sati Beg marries Sulaiman who becomes the co-ruler.
1339: In Kashmir, Death of Sadrud Din, throne captured by a Hindu Udyana Deva.
In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Burun, accession of Isun Temur. In
Bengal, The Tughluq Governor at Lakhnauti-Qadr Khan assassinated and power is
captured by the army commander-in-chief who declares his independence and
assumes the title of Alauddin Ali Shah.
1340: In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids conquer Kirman. In the
Chughills empire, Deposition of Isun Temur, accession of Muhammad.
1341: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Uzbeg, succession of his son Tini
1342: In the Golden Horde empire, Tini Beg overthrown by his brother Jani Beg.
1343: In the Chughills empire, Muhammad overthrown, power captured by Kazan. In
Bengal, Ilyas an officer of Alauddin murders his patron and captures the throne
of West Bengal.
1344: In the Mongols II Khans empire, Deposition of Sulaiman, succession of
1345: In the Samudra Pasai empire, Death of Malik al Tahir II, accession of
Tahir III. His rule lasted throughout the fourteenth century. In Bengal, llyas
captures East Bengal and under him Bengal is again united. He establishes his
capital at Gaur.
1346: In the Chughills empire, Deposition of Kazan, accession of Hayan Kuli. In
Tunisia, Death of Abu Bakr, succession of his son Fadal. In Kashmir, Death of
Udyana Deva, throne captured by Shah Mirza who assumed the name of Shah Mir, and
rounded the rule of Shah Mir dynasty.
1347: The Marinids capture Tunisia. In the Bahmanids empire, Hasan Gangu
declares his independence and establishes a state in Deccan with the capital at
1349: In Kashmir, Death of Shah Mir, accession of his son Jamsbed. In Algeria,
The Zayanids under Abu Said Othman recapture Algeria.
1350: In the Sarbadaran empire, Revolt against Abdur Razaq. Power captured by
Amir Masud. In Tunisia, Deposition of Fadal, succession of his brother Abu
Ishaq. In Kashmir, Jamshed overthrown by his step brother Alauddin Ali Sher.
1351: In the Marinids empire, Death of Abul Hasan, succession of Abu Inan. In
the Tughluqs empire, Death of Muhammad Tughluq accession of Firuz Shah Tughluq.
1352: In Algeria, The Marinids again capture Algeria. Abu Said Othman is taken
captive and killed.
1353: End of the Mongol II Khan rule. In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks
acquire the fortress of Tympa on the European side of the Hollespoint. In the
Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids conquer Shiraz and establish their capital
1354: In the Muzaffarids empire, The Muzaffarids annex Isfahan. In Granada,
Assassination of Abu Hallaj Yusuf, succession of his son Muhammad V.
1356: In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hasan Buzurg, succession of his son Owaia.
1357: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Jani Beg, succession of Kulpa.
1358: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Hasan Gangu, accession of his son
Muhammad Shah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Mubarazuddin Muhammad;
accession of Shah Shuja. In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Inan,
succession of Abu Bakr Said. In Bengal, Death of Ilyas, succession of his son
1359: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Orkhan, succession of Murad. In the
Muzaffarids empire, Shah Shuja deposed by his brother Shah Mahmud. In Tunisia,
Abul Abbas a nephew of Abu Ishaq revolts and establishes his rule in Bougie. In
Algeria, The Zayanids under Abu Hamuw II recapture Algeria. In the Marinids
empire, Abu Bakr Said overthrown by Abu Salim Ibrahim. In Granada, Muhammad V
loses the throne in palace revolution, succeeded by Ismail.
1360: In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Mahmud. Shah Shuja recaptures
power. In the Chughills empire, Power captured by Tughluq Temur. In Granada,
Ismail overthrown by his brother-in-law Abu Said.
1361: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Murad conquers a part of Thrace and
establishes his capital at Demolika in Thrace. In the Golden Horde empire, Kulpa
overthrown by his brother Nauroz. In the Marinids empire, Abu Salim Ibrahim
overthrown by Abu Umar. Abu Umar overthrown by Abu Zayyan.
1362: In the Golden Horde empire, State of anarchy. During 20 years as many as
14 rulers came to the throne and made their exit. In Granada, Abu Said
overthrown by Muhammad V who comes to rule for the second time. In Kashmir,
Death of Alauddin Ali Sher, succeeded by his brother Shahabuddin.
1365: In the Ottoman Turks empire, The Turks defeat the Christians at the battle
of Matiza, the Byzantine ruler becomes a vassal of the Turks.
1366: In the Marinids empire, Assassination of Abu Zayyan, succession of Abu
Faris Abdul Aziz.
1369: Power captured by Amir Temur. End of the rule of the Chughills. Amir Temur
captures power in Transoxiana. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Ishaq. Succession of his
son Abu Baqa Khalid.
1370: In Tunisia, Abu Baqa overthrown by Abul Abbas under whom the state is
reunited. In the Sarbadaran empire, Death of Amir Masud, succession of Muhammad
1371: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Invasion of Bulgaria, Bulgarian territory
upto the Balkans annexed by the Turks.
1372: In the Marinids empire, Death of Abu Faris, succession of Abu Muhammad.
1374: In the Marinids empire, Abu Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas.
1375: In the Sarbadaran empire, Deposition of Muhammad Temur, power captured by
Shamsuddin. In the Jalayar empire, Death of Owais, succession by his son
1376: In Kashmir, Death of Shahabuddin, succeeded by his brother Qutbuddin.
1377: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Shah, succeeded by his son
1378: In the Bahmanids empire, Mujahid assassinated, throne captured by his
1379: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Bairam Khawaja found the independent
principality of the Turkomans of the Black Sheep and established his capital at
Van in Armenia. In the Bahmanids empire, Assassination of Daud; accession of
1380: In the Golden Horde empire, Power is captured by Toktamish, a prince of
the White Horde of Siberia. In Amir Temur's empire, Amir Temur crosses the Oxus
and conquers Khurasan and Herat. Amir Temur invades Persia and subjugates the
Muzaffarids and Mazandaran.
1381: In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Seestan, capture of Qandhar.
1384: In Amir Temur's empire, Conquest of Astrabad, Mazandaran, Rayy and
Sultaniyah. In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of Shah Shuja, accession of his son
Zainul Abdin. In the Marinids empire, Abul Abbas overthrown by Mustansir.
Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Bairam Khawaja, succession of Qara
1386: In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Azarbaijan, Georgea overrun.
Subjugation of Gilan and Shirvan. Turkomans of the Black Sheep defeated. In the
Marinids empire, Death of Mustansir, succession of Muhammad.
1387: In the Marinids empire, Muhammad overthrown by Abul Abbas who comes to
power for the second time.
1388: In Algeria, Death of Abu Hamuw II, succession of Abu Tashfin. In the
Tughluqs empire, Death of Firuz Shah Tughluq, succeeded by his grandson
Ghiasuddin Tughluq II.
1389: In the Muzaffarids empire, Death of the poet Hafiz Shirazi. In the
Tughluqs empire, Death of Ghiasuddin Tughluq II, accession: of Abu Bakr Tughluq
Shah. Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Muhammad. succession of
1390: In the Tughluqs empire, Abu Bakr overthrow by Nasiruddin Tughluq. In
Bengal, Death of Sikandar Shah, accession of his son Ghiasud. In the Burji
Mamluks empire, The rule of the Burji Mamluks rounded by Saifuddin Barquq.
1391: In Amir Temur's empire, Annexation of Fars. In the Muzaffarids empire,
Annexation of the Muzaffarids by Amir Temur. In Granada, Death of Muhammad V,
succession of his son Abu Hallaj Yusuf II.
1392: In the Jalayar empire, Death of Hussain, succession of his son Ahmad. In
Granada, Death of Abu Hallaj ; succession of Muhammad VI.
1393: Amir Temur defeats Tiktomish, the ruler of the Golden Horde. Capture of
the Jalayar dominions by Amir Temur. In the Marinids empire, Death of Abul
Abbas; succession of Abu Faris II.
1394: Amir Temur defeats the Duke of Moscow. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of
Nasiruddin Tugluq, accession of Alauddin Sikandar Shah. In Kashmir, Death of
Qutbuddin. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Qara Othman established the rule
of the White Sheep Turkomans in Diyarbekr.
1395: In the Golden Horde empire, Amir Temur defeated Toktamish and razes Serai
to the ground. End of the rule of the Golden Horde. Annexation of Iraq by Amir
Temur. In the Tughluqs empire, Death of Sikandar Shah. Accession of Muhammad
1396: In the Amir Temur's empire, Destruction of Sarai, and of the rule of the
Golden Horde. In the Sarbadaran empire, Principality annexed by Amir Temur.
1397: In the Bahmanids empire, Death of Muhammad Khan.
1398: In the Amir Temur's empire, Campaign in India. In the Marinids empire,
Death of Abu Faris II. In the Tughluqs empire, Invasion of Amir Timur, Mahmud
Shah escapes from the capital. In Morocco, Death of the Marinid Sultan Abu Faris
II; succession of his son Abu Said Othman.
1399: In the Amir Temur's empire, Campaign in Iraq and Syria. In the Burji
Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Barquq, succession of his son Nasiruddin in
15th Century (1400-1499) C.E.
1400: In the Burji Mamluks empire, The Mamluks lost Syria which was occupied by
1401: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Timur Qutluq, the ruler, installed by
Amir Timur. accession of Shadi Beg.
1402: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Defeat of Bayazid at the battle of Ankara,
taken captive Amir Timur.
1403: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Muhammad I, the son of Bayazid ascended the
1405: In the Timurids empire, Death of Amir Timur, succession of his son Shah
1407: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Shadi Beg, installation of
Faulad Khan by the king maker Edigu.
1410: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Faulad Khan, installation of
1412: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Timur, installation of
Jalaluddin. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Nasiruddin Faraj, succession
of Al Muayyad.
1413: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Jalaluddin, installation of
1414: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Karim Bardo, installation of
1416: In the Golden Horde empire, Deposition of Kubak Khan, installation of
Jahar Balrawi. Deposition of Jahar Balrawi, installation of Chaighray.
1419: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Edigu, overthrow of Chaighray, power
captured by Ulugh Muhammad.
1420: In the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad overthrown by Daulat Bairawi.
Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Qara Yusuf; succession of his son
Qara Iskandar. In Morocco, Assassination of Abu Said Othman; succession of his
infant son Abdul Haq.
1421: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad I; accession of his son
Murad II. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Al Muayyad, succession of
Muzaffar Ahmad. Muzaffar Ahmad overthrown by Amir Saifuddin Tata, Death of
Saifuddin Tata, succession of his son Muhammad. Muhammad overthrown by Amir
1424: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Daulat Bairawi, succession of Berk.
In Algeria, The Halsida of Tunisia occupy Algeria. This state of affairs
continued throughout the fifteenth century.
1425: In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr, a prince of the house of Uzbeg declare
his independence in the western part of Siberia.
1427: In the Golden Horde empire, Berk overthrown by Ulugh Muhammad who captured
power for the second time.
1430: In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr occupies Khawarazm.
1434: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Deposition of Qara Iskandar;
installation of his brother Jahan Shah. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire,
Death of Qara Othman, succession of his son Ali Beg. In Tunisia, Death of Abul
Faris after a rule of forty years, succession of his son Abu Abdullah Muhammad.
1435: In Tunisia, Deposition of Abu Abdullah Muhammad, power captured by Abu
1438: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Barsbay, accession of his minor son
Jamaluddin Yusuf; Yusuf overthrown and power captured by the Chief Minister
Saifuddin Gakmuk. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Ali Beg overthrown by his
1439: In the Golden Horde empire, Ulugh Muhammad withdrew from Sarai and found
the principality of Qazan. Said Ahmad came to power in Sarai.
1440: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Hamza overthrown by Jahangir a son of
1441: In the Golden Horde empire, Crimea seceded from Sarai.
1446: In the Timurids empire, Death of Shah Rukh, succession of Ulugh Beg. In
the Ottoman Turks empire, Second battle of Kossova resulting in the victory of
the Turks. Serbia annexed to Turkey and Bosnia became its vassal.
1447: In the Golden Horde empire, Astra Khan seceded from Sarai.
1449: In the Uzbegs empire, Abul Khayr captures Farghana. In the Timurids
empire, Death of Ulugh Beg, succession of Abdul Latif.
1450: In the Timurids empire, Assassination of Abdul Latif, accession of Abu
1451: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Murad II; accession of his son
1453: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Capture of Constantinople by the Turks.
Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Jahangir; accession of his son
Uzun Hasan. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Gakmuk. succession of his son
Fakhruddin Othman. Othman overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Inal.
1454: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Attack against Wallachia, Wallachia became a
vassal state of Turkey.
1456: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Serbia.
1461: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Bosnia and Herzogovina. In the
Burji Mamluks empire, Death of Saifuddin Inal, succession of his son Shahabuddin
Ahmad. Shahabuddin Ahmad overthrown by the Mamluk General Saifuddin Khushqadam.
1462: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Albania.
1465: In the Golden Horde empire, Death of Said Ahmad, succession of his son
Khan Ahmad. In Morocco, Assassination of Abdul Haq. End of the Marinid rule.
Power snatched by Sharif Muhammad al Jati.
1467: Turkomans of the Black Sheep empire, Death of Jahan Shah, end of the rule
of the Black Sheep Turkoman rule. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Jahan
Shah of the Black Sheep attacked the White Sheep. Jahan Shah was defeated and
the Black Sheep territories annexed by the White Sheep. In the Burji Mamluks
empire, Death of Khushqadam, accession of his son Saifuddin Yel Bey. Deposition
of Yel Bey, power captured by the Mamluk General Temur Bugha.
1468: In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Abul Khayr, succession of his son Haidar
Sultan. Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Uzun Hasan defeated the Timurids at
the battle of Qarabagh whereby the White Sheep became the masters of Persia and
Khurasan. In the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Femur Bugha, power captured
by the Mamluk General Qait Bay.
1469: In the Timurids empire, Death of Abu Said, disintegration of the Timurid
state. In Khurasan Hussain Baygara came to power and he ruled during the
remaining years of the fifteenth century.
1472: In Morocco, Sharif Muhammad al Jati overthrown by the Wattisid chief
Muhammad al Shaikh who establishes the rule of the Wattisid dynasty.
1473: In the Ottoman Turks empire, War against Persia; Persians defeated.
1475: In the Ottoman Turks empire, Annexation of Crimea. War against Venice.
Tukey became the master of the Aegean Sea.
1478: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Uzun Hasan, succession of
his son Khalil.
1479: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Khalil overthrown by his uncle Yaqub.
1480: In the Golden Horde empire, Assassination of Khan Ahmad, succession of his
son Said Ahmad II.
1481: In the Golden Horde empire, Said Ahmad I1 overthrown by his brother
Murtada. In the Ottoman Turks empire, Death of Muhammad II, accession of Bayazid
1488: In the Uzbegs empire, Death of Haider Sultan, succession of his nephew
Shaybani Khan. In Tunisia, Death of Abu Umar Othman after a rule of 52 years,
succession of Abu Zikriya Yahya.
1489: In Tunisia, Abu Zikriya Yahya overthrown by Abul Mumin.
1490: In Tunisia, Abul Mumin overthrown, power recaptured by Abu Yahya.
1493: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Death of Yaqub. accession of his son
1495: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Bayangir overthown by his cousin
1496: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Abdication of Qait Bay, succession of his son
1497: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, Rustam overthrown by Ahmad. Anarchy
1498: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Deposition of Nasir Muhammad, power captured
by Zahir Kanauh.
1499: In the Uzbegs empire, Shayhani Khan conquered Transoxiana. In the Golden
Horde empire, Death of Murtada, succession of Said Ahmad III." In the Ottoman
Turks empire, The Turks defeated the Venetian fleet in the battle of Lepanto.
16th Century (1500-1599) C.E.
1500: In the Burji Mamluks empire, Zahir Kanauh overthrown by Ashraf Gan Balat.
1501: Isamil I establishes the Safavid dynasty in Persia, and the Twelve-Imam
Shi'ism becomes the state religion.
1507: The Portuguese under d'Albuquerque establish strongholds in the Persian
1508: Turkomans of the White Sheep empire, End of the White Sheep dynasty and
the annexation of their territories by the Safawids.
1511: D'Albuquerque conquers Malacca from the Muslims.
1517: The Ottoman Sultan Selim Yavuz ("the Grim") defeats the Mamluks and
1520: The reign of Sulayman the Magnificent begins.
1526: Louis of Hungary dies at the Battle of Mohacs.
1526: The Battle of Panipat in India, and the Moghul conquest; Babur makes his
capital at Delhi and Agra.
1528: The Ottomans take Buda in Hungary.
1529: Unsuccessful Ottoman siege of Vienna.
1550: The architect Sinan builds the Suleymaniye mosque in Istanbul.
1550: The rise of the Muslim kingdom of Atjeh in Sumatra.
1550: Islam spreads to Java, the Moluccas, and Borneo.
1556: The death of Sulayman the Magnificent.
1568: Alpujarra uprising of the Moriscos (Muslims forcibly converted to
Catholicism) in Spain.
1571: The Ottomans are defeated at the naval Battle of Lepanto, and their
dominance in the Mediterranean is brought to a close.
1578: The Battle of the Three Kings at Qasr al-Kabir in Morocco. King Sebastian
of Portugal is killed.
1588: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I begins.
1591: Mustaili Ismailis split into Sulaymanis and Daudis.
17th Century (1600-1699) C.E.
1600: Sind annexed by the Mughals. End of the Arghun rule in Sind.
1601: Khandesh annexed by the Mughals.
1603: Battle of Urmiyah. Turks suffer defeat. Persia occupies Tabriz,
Mesopotamia. Mosul and Diyarbekr. Death of Muhammad III, Sultan of Turkey,
accession of Ahmad I. In Morocco al Shaikh died.
1604: In Indonesia death of Alauddin Rayat Shah, Sultan of Acheh, accession of
Ali Rayat Shah III.
1605: Death of the Mughal emperor Akbar; accession of Jahangir.
1607: Annexation of Ahmadnagar by the Mughals.
1609: Annexation of Bidar by the Mughals
1611: Kuch Behar subjugated by the Mughals.
1612: Kamrup annexed by the Mughals.
1617: Death of Ahmad I, Sultan of Turkey, accession of Mustafa; Deposition of
Mustafa: accession of Othman II.
1618: Tipperah annexed by the Mughals.: '
1620: In Turkey deposition of Mustafa, accession of Othman II.
1623: In Turkey Mustafa recaptured power.
1625: In Turkey deposition of Mustafa, accession of Murad IV.
1627: Death of the Mughal emperor Jahangir, accession of Shah Jahan.
1628: Reign of Safavid Sultan Shah Abbas I comes to an end.
1629: In Persia death of Shah Abbas; accession of grandson Safi.
1631: Death of Mumtaz Mahal, wife of Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and the lady of
Taj Mahal, Agra.
1637: Death of Iskandar Muda in Indonesia; accession of Iskandar II.
1640: Death of Otthman Sultan Murad IV. accession of his brother Ibrahim.
1641: Turks capture Azov. In Indonesia death of Iskandar II; accession of the
Queen Tajul Alam.
1642: In Persia death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Abbas II.
1648: In Turkey Ibrahim deposed; accession of Muhammad IV.
1656: Muhammad Kuiprilli becomes the Grand Minister in Turkey.
1658: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan, accession of Aurangzeb.
1661: Death of Muhammad Kuiprilli, accession of his son Ahmad Kuiprilli.
1667: Death of Shah Abbas II; accession of Shah Sulaiman.
1675: Execution of the Sikh Guru Tegh Bahadur. In Indonesia death of the queen
Tajul Alam, accession of the queen Nur ul Alam.
1676: Death of the Grand Wazir of Turkey Ahmad Kuiprilli, succession by Kara
1678: In Indonesia death of the queen Nur ul Alam, accession of the queen Inayat
1680: Death of Marhatta chieftain Shivaji.
1682: Assam annexed by the Mughals. Aurangzeb shifts the capital to Aurangabad
in the Deccan.
1683: The Turks lift the siege of Vienna and retreat. Kara Mustafa the Grand
Wazir executed for the failure of the expedition.
1686: Annexation of Bijapur by the Mughals.
1687: Golkunda annexed by the Mughals. Second battle of Mohads. Defeat of the
Turks by Austria. Deposition of Muhammad IV. Accession of Sulaiman II.
1688: In Indonesia death of queen Inayat Zakia, accession of the queen Kamalah.
1690: Death of the Ottoman Sultan Sulaiman II, accession of Ahmad II.
1692: Death of the Turk Sultan Ahmad II, accession of Mustafa II.
1694: In Persia death of Shah Safi, accession of Shah Hussain.
1699: In Indonesia death of Queen Kamalah.
18th Century (1700-1799) C.E.
1700: Murshid Quli Khan declares the independence of Bengal and establishes his
capital at Murshidabad.
1703: Ahmad 11I becomes the Ottoman Sultan. Birth of Shah Wali Ullah. Birth of
the religious reformer Muhammad b Abdul Wahab.
1707: Death of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb, accession of his son Bahadur Shah.
1711: War between Turkey and Russia. Russia defeated at the battle of Pruth.
1712: Death of the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah, accession of Jahandar Shah.
1713: Jahandar Shah overthrown by his nephew Farrukh Siyar.
1718: In the war against Austria, Turkey suffers defeat. By the treaty of
Passarowich Turkey loses Hungary.
1719: Deposition of the Mughal emperor Farrukh Siyar Muhammad Shah ascends the
throne. In Sind the Kalhoras came to power under Nur Muhammad Kalhora.
1722: Saadat Khan found the independent state of Oudh. Battle of Gulnabad
between the Afghans and the Persians. The Persians were defeated and the Afghans
under Shah Mahmud became the masters of a greater part of Persia. Shah Hussain
taken captive, accession of Shah Tahmasp II.
1730: Zanzibar freed from Portugese rule and occupied by Oreart.
1747: Ahmad Shah Durrani established Afghan rule in Afghanistan.
1752: Death of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai, writer of Sassi Pannu, Sohni Mahinwal
and Umer Marvo.
1752: Ahmed Shah Durrani captured Punjab, Kashmir and Sind.
1761: Death of Shah Waliullah Dehlavi.
1761: Battle of Panipat. Ahmad Shah Durrani came to India at the invitation of
Shah Waliullah Dehlavi and smashed rising Maratha power in the battle of
1764: Conversion to Islam of Areadi Gaya. ruler of Futa Bandu State in West
1773: Death of Ahmad Shah Durrani.
1783: End of Kalhora rule in Sind.
1797: Death of Muhammad Khan Qachar, king of Persia.
1797: Russia occupied Daghestan.
1799: Ranjit Singh declared himself Maharajah of Punjab defeating Afghans.
1799: Khoqand declared independent Islamic State.
19th Century (1800-1899) C.E.
1803: Shah Abdul Aziz ibn Saud assassinated by a Shia fanatic. Shah Shuja
proclaimed as King of Afghanistan.
1805: Ibn Saud captured Madinah defeating the Turk garrison.
1804: Othman Dan Fodio established Islamic State of Sokoto in Central Sudan.
1805: Faraizi movement launched in Bengal. Muhammad Ali appointed Pasha of Egypt
by the Turks.
1806: Khanate of Khiva came into limelight under the rule of Muhammad Rahim
1807: Darqawi sect revolted against Turkish domination. Tunisia repudiated
suzerainty of Algeria.
1811: Birth of Ali Muhammad Bab founder of Bab movement.
1811: British occupied Indonesia.
1812: Madina fell to Egyptians.
1813: Makkah and Taif captured by Egyptian forces and Saudis expelled from
1814: Iran executed treaty of alliance with the British known as Definitive
1814: Death of Ibn Saud II.
1814: King Othman of Tunisia assassinated by his cousin Mahmud.
1816: British withdrew from Indonesia restoring it to the Dutch.
1822: Death of Maulay Ismail in Morocco.
1827: Malaya became a preserve of the British according to Anglo- Netherland
treaty in 1824.
1828: Russia declared war against Turkey.
1829: Treaty of Adrianople.
1830: French forces landed near Algiers and occupied Algeria ending 313 years
rule of Turks.
1831: Syed Ahmad Barelvi and Shah Ismail leaders of Jihad movement in India fell
fighting the Sikhs in Balakot.
1832: Turks defeated in the battle of Konia by Egyptian forces.
1832: Sayyid Said, King of Oman, shifted his capital to Zanzibar.
1834: Abdul Qadir recognised as ruler of the area under his control by the
1839: Defeat of Turkey by the Egyptians in the battle of Nisibin.
1840: Quadruple Alliance by the European powers to force Egypt to relinquish
1840: British frees occupied Aden.
1841: State of Adamawa established by Adams adjacent to Nigeria.
1842: Amir Abdul Qadir, ousted from Algeria by the French. crossed over to
1842: Shah Shuja assassinated ending the Durrani rule in Afghanistan.
1847: Amir Abdul Qadir surrendred to France under the condition of safe conduct
to a Muslim country of his choice but France violated its pledge and sent him as
a captive to France.
1849: Death of Muhammad Ali pasha.
1850: Ali Muhammad Bab arrested and executed by Iranian government. Qurratul Ain
Tabira, a renowned poetess and staunch advocate of Babism also shot dead.
1852: Release of Amir Abdul Qadir by Napolean III. He settled in Turkey.
1855: Khiva annexed by Russia.
1857: British captured Delhi and eliminated Mughal rule in India after 332
years. Last Mughal Emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar was exiled to Rangoon in Burma.
This was also the end of 1000 years of Muslim rule over India.
1859: Imam Shamil laid down arms before Russian forces and the Islamic State of
Daghestan became a Russian province.
1860: Maulay Muhammad defeated by Spain.
1861: Death of Sultan Abdul-Majid of Turkey.
1862: Faraizi movement fizzled out after the death of Dadu Miyan..
1865: Khoqand State liquidated by Russia.
1869: Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Afghanistan. He proceeded to Egypt.
1871: Tunisia recognised suzerainty of Turkey through a Firman.
1876: Britain purchased shares of Khediv Ismail in the Suez canal and got
involved in Egyptian affairs.
1878: Turkey handed over Cyprus to Britain.
1878: Adrianople fell to Russia.
1879: Jamaluddin Afghani exiled from Egypt.
1879: Treaty of Berlin. Turkey lost 4/5 th of its territory in Europe.
1881: France invaded Tunisia and the Bey acknowledged supremacy of France as a
result of the treaty of Bardo.
1881: Muhammad Ahmad declared himself Mahdi in northern Sudan.
1882: Egypt came under British military occupation.
1883: Death of Amir Abdul Qadir in Damascus.
1885: Muhammad Ahmad declared free Government of Sudan under his rule.
1885: Death of Mahdi Sudani five months after the occupation of Khartum.
1890: End of Banbara State.
1895: Afghanistan got Wakhan corridor by an understanding with Russia and
British India making Afghan border touch China.
1895: Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian claimed prophethood.
1897: State of Bagirimi occupied by the French.
1899: Fall of Mahdi State occupied by the British and the Egyptians jointly.
20th Century (1900-1992) C.E.
1901: Ibn Saud (Abd al-Aziz) captures Riyad.
1901: French forces occupy Morocco.
1904: Morocco becomes a French protectorate under the Conference of Algeciras.
1904: The Presian constitution is promoted.
1905: The beginning of the Salafiyyah movement in Paris with it's main sphere of
influence in Egypt.
1907: The beginning of the Young Turks movement in Turkey.
1912: The beginning of the Muhammadiyyah reform movement in Indonesia.
1914: Under Ottoman rule, secret Arab nationalist societies are formed.
1914: World War I.
1916: Arab revolt against Ottoman (Turkish) rule. Lawrence of Arabia leads
attacks on the Hijaz Railway.
1918: Armistice signed with Ottomans on October 30.
1918: World War I ends on November 11.
1918: Syria and Damascus become a French protectorate.
1921: Abd Allah bin Husayn in made King of Transjordan. His father was the
Sharif of Mecca.
1921: Faysal bin Husayn is made King of Iraq. His father was the Sharif of
1921: Abd al-Karim leads a revolt against colonial rule in Moroccan Rif, and
declares the "Republic of the Rif".
1922: Mustafa Kemal abolishes the Turkish Sultanate.
1924: The Turkish Caliphate is abolished.
1924: King Abd al-Aziz conquers Mecca and Medina, which leads to the unification
of the Kingdoms of Najd and Hijaz.
1925: Reza Khan seizes the government in Persia and establishes the Pahlavi
1926: Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) assumes title of King of Najd and Hijaz.
1927: Death of Zaghlul, an Egyptian nationalist leader.
1928: Turkey is declared a secular state.
1928: Hasan al-Banna founds the Muslim Brotherhood.
1932: Iraq granted independence by League of Nations.
1934: War between King Abd al-Aziz and Imam Yahya of the Yemen.
1934: Peace treaty of Ta'if.
1934: Asir becomes part of Saudi Arabia.
1935: Iran becomes the official name of Persia.
1936: Increased Jewish immigration provokes widespread Arab-Jewish fighting in
1939: World War II.
1941: British and Russian forces invade Iran and Reza Shah is forced to abdicate
in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Shah in Iran.
1943: Beginning of Zionist terrorist campaign in Palestine.
1945: End of World War II.
1946: Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria are granted independence from Britain and
1947: Creation of Pakistan from Muslim Majority area in India.
1948: Creation of state of Israel. Arab armies suffer defeat in war with Israel.
1949: Hasan al-Banna, leader of the Muslim Brotherhood, is assassinated.
1951: Libya becomes independent.
1952: King Faruq of Egypt forced to abdicate.
1953: General Zahedi leads coup against Musaddeq, Shah returns to power.
1953: Death of King Abd al-Aziz (Ibn Saud) of Saudi Arabia.
1953: The foundation stone is laid to enlarge the Prophet's mosque in Medina.
1956: Morocco becomes independent.
1956: Tunisia becomes independent.
1957: The Bey of Tunisia is deposed, and Bourguiba becomes becomes president.
1957: Enlargement of the Haram in Mecca begins.
1962: Algeria becomes independent.
1962: Death of Zaydi Imam of Yemen (Ahmad). Crown Prince Bahr succeds him and
takes the title Imam Mansur Bi-Llah Muhammad.
1965: Malcom X is assassinated.
1968: The enlargement of the Haram in Mecca is completed.
1969: King Idris of Libya is ousted by a coup led by Colonel Qadhdhafi.
1973: King Zahir Shah of Afghanistan is overthrown.
1975: Death of Elijah Mohammad, leader of Nation of Islam among African
Americans in North America.
1975: Wallace Warith Deen Mohammad assumes leadership of Nation of Islam and
shifts movement toward Islamic Orthodoxy renaming it American Muslim Mission.
1978: Imam Musa Sadr is apparently assassinated after he disappears on a trip to
Libya. He was the religious leader of the Lebanese Twelve-Imam Shi'ites. He
promoted the resurgence of Shi'ites in Lebanon and set the foundation of Amal.
1979: The Shah leaves Iran on January 15, thus bringing the Pahlavi dynasty to
1979: On 1 Muharram AH 1400/21 November, the first day of the 15th Islamic
century, fanatics led by students of the Theological University of Medina
attempt to promote one of their group as Mahdi and thus fulfill a certain
prophetic Hadith: "A man of the people of Medina will go forth, fleeing to
Mecca, and certain of the people of Mecca will come to him and will lead him
forth against his will and swear fealty to him between the rukn (Black Stone
corner of the Kabah) and the Maqam Ibrahim." They hold the Haram of Mecca
against the army for two weeks. Sixty-three of the 300 fanatics are captured
alive, the mosque is recovered, and the conspirators are all put to death.
1980: Beginning of the Iran-Iraq war.
1989: Iran-Iraq comes to an end with much loss of life.
1990: Military annexation of Kuwait by Iraq, under Ba'athist leader Saddam
Hussain, is reversed in 1991 by a coalition of United States-led forces.